Gender in Education: A Shift From Ideology to Action

GENDER PARITY in access to education is a common discourse shared by the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). In last two decades, Most of the countries have taken a wide range of initiatives to achieve equal participation of male and female students in primary and secondary education. Nevertheless, positive changes in number and quality are still lagging behind the SDG targets. 42.5% of girls attended primary school in South Asia in 1992. In 2012, the scenario remained unchanged. However, trying to achieve gender equality only by increasing equal number of participation of boys and girls does not help achieve the original aim.

Equal number of participation of both gender in education surely portrays equal right in access to education. But the notion of gender parity lies within an individual psychology and actions correlated to the psychology. Increased enrollment of female student in education does not necessarily ensures gender equality. Many people see women participation as an essential tool to eliminate social stigma which does not necessarily change the age-old mentality about gender equality and equity. Such mindset is absent among most of the girls, and women of next generation. As a result, the number of female participation has remained almost unchanged over the period. Changing this psychology requires adopting an intricate pathway of learning and understanding the necessity of both gender and practicing in real life. Actions, in accordance with sustained ideological shift of equal gender role, increases the chance of creating protracted timeline of continued gender equality. Hence, psychological change is one of the cardinal elements to bring expected change in gender parity. Access to education may ensure women’s right to education but access to gender equal mindset can ensure women’s right not only in education but in all walks of life.

Designing such tricky pathway to ensure gender equality is not easy. Gender issues are perceived differently among male and female students. To change the preconceived stereotypes of gender role, gender issues must be included in textbooks. Unique ideas need to be evolved to penetrate typical notion of gender role built over the years in patriarchy. Education curricula need to be linguistically realigned to represent gender equality. Gender issues should be addressed separately among male and female students as the perception of gender roles differs from male to female. Generic description of gender equality in textbook is not sufficient if it does not stimulate the preset psychology to bring the expected changes. Contemporary curricula need be restructured with evolving gender issues and ideas of gender role and equality in workplace to bring the positive psychological change.

Once the change is made, the group of thoughts can be implemented through practical actions. Adopting psychological change and practicing equal gender roles must run in parallel. A positive psychological change in gender equality can be carried forward though prolonged course of actions in the society. If necessary, school-going students can be taught in different ways than the female students as gender role is influenced by patriarchal ideology. On the other hand, school-going female students must be introduced with gender education and innovative ideas to raise their voice in patriarchy. A comprehensive and inclusive approach is compulsory to teach and preach both gender about gender role, issues, equality and equity.

If such gender neutral mentally evolves and sustains through generations, the chance of bringing positive changes with gender neutral role will be higher. This ideological shift reminds us about Dr. Amartya Sen’s Capability Approach that emphasis on ideological change by taking free decision to control quality of life. The psychological development of gender equality brings similar impact to make independent decision on gender role. The capability of making gender neutral decision comes with ideological changes and practices through combined actions.

The idea of increasing female participation among school-going children will see the daylight only we are able to change psychological construction of school-going students from the early stage of life and transfers such changes through generations. The need of increasing female participation should be addressed among male students, and future generation as well. The process needs to be customized accordingly. Any overarching approach for gender neutrality could be counterproductive and ineffective. Increased number of female students may depict access to education, but not access to gender equal world.

Continuing Education for Insurance Agents

Insurance professionals must complete a minimum number of insurance continuing education hours every 1-2 years. Insurance agents must check with their state to see when they are due and how many hours are required. The requirement differs from state to state. The classes an agent must take also differ depending on the license(s) they hold. The most common licenses agents hold are health, life, and property and casualty. Each license allows a producer to sell a different line of insurance depending on their clients needs. Usually, for each license the producer must complete different continuing education requirements depending where they live and do business. Life and health is usually bundled, but property and casualty is selling to a completely different audience.

Insurance educational training is a great way for agents to keep current with industry trends and also learn about new and upcoming products. Many agents have been licensed for 10+ years now and of course rules and regulations have changed. An agent may be committing insurance fraud or a crime and not even know it! Continuing education requirements are meant to benefit the insurance agency, the insurance agent and of course the consumer. The agency knows the agent is being ethical when selling policies to clients. The agent is current with all laws and new products available to their client and the client knows they are getting the best product possible. It is a win/win situation for all parties involved.

Continuing education for insurance agents is very important because the state can revoke your license if you do not stay in compliance. Every agent should know exactly when their continuing education credits are due and how many hours they need to complete to avoid any fines. To find out how many credits you need and when they are due you should contact your state authority or an approved provider. An approved provider will be able to look up your information with the state and help you select online courses to take. Online continuing education is usually the fastest and easiest way to complete your insurance education, especially if you are nearing your compliance deadline. Just confirm with your state that online continuing education is an option. Some states require you complete your education in a classroom. The only real benefit of completing your education requirements in a classroom is there is no exam at the end of the class. The drawback is sitting in a classroom for up to 24 hours!

Golf Course Types by Ownership

One of the things that a newcomer to the World of golf would probably like to know is what the difference is between different types of golf course. This question is more complicated than you may first imagine as there are really three different ways to express what category a particular golf course fits into.

The first is by setting and categories a course by whether it is set in heathland, woodland or by the ocean etc. The second type is by length, where the course is categorized essentially by the length of time it takes to play a round, so these types will be pitch & putt, full length or executive, so called because executives may not have time to play a round on a full length course of 18 holes. Most executive courses are only 9 holes.

In this article though we are going to look at how golf courses can be categorized by ownership. The above two types of categorization allow you to know what to expect when you turn up to play. However, this third type of categorization determines whether or not you will be allowed access to the course at all.

The following is not an exhaustive list of course types but these are the most popular types of course that you might come across.

Private Golf Courses are courses which are owned by a golf club and they only allow play by members of the club. If you aren’t a member of the club then you can’t play, unless of course you are lucky enough to be invited to play by someone who is already a member.

Public Golf Courses can be courses owned by private organizations or individuals or by other organizations such as local businesses. The key here is that the owner charges a fee for playing. Essentially this means that the course is open to be played by anyone who can afford to pay the fee.

Courses also exist which are essentially a combination of the above two. Club members can play at any time. The public are allowed to play but usually only on specific days of the week, or times of day.

Municipal golf course are owned by the local government. They operate like public golf courses but the money paid for the green fees goes to the them as opposed to a private individual or company.

Some residential areas have their own golf course which is designed to be played by the local residents only. They tend to be run by the community itself and as such are not open to the public.

Finally there is the resort golf course. Resort golf courses are owned and operated by a holiday resort or a hotel chain for the pleasure of their guests. Play may not be restricted to resort guests however, and so you may find some resort courses are open to the public in return for a fee.